The discovery of a “heat wave” on a planetary scale in the atmosphere of Jupiter

Europlanet Media Middle A panoramic view of the higher ambiance temperatures of Jupiter, 1,000 km above the cloud tops. Jupiter seems above the seen picture of the context. On this shot, the auroral area (close to the North Pole, in yellow/white) seems to have solid an enormous planetary-scale heating wave towards the equator. This characteristic is greater than 130,000 kilometers lengthy, or 10 diameters from Earth, and is tons of of levels hotter than the background. For the video see: https://youtu.be/gWT0QwSoVls. Credit score: Hubble/NASA/ESA/A. Simon (NASA GSFC)/J. Schmidt. Credit score: James O’Donoghue

An surprising “warmth wave” of 700°C has been detected, extending 130,000 km (10 Earth diameters) in Jupiter’s ambiance. James O’Donoghue, of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Company (JAXA), introduced the findings this week on the Europlanet Science Convention (EPSC) 2022 in Granada.

Jupiter’s ambiance, well-known for its distinctive multicolored swirls, can be unexpectedly scorching: the truth is, it is tons of of levels hotter than fashions predict. Attributable to its orbital distance of hundreds of thousands of kilometers from the Solar, the large planet receives lower than 4% of the quantity of daylight in comparison with Earth, and its higher ambiance ought to theoretically be as chilly as -70 levels Celsius. As a substitute, its cloud tops are in every single place measured at greater than 400 levels Celsius.

“Final 12 months we produced – and introduced at EPSC2021 – the primary maps of Jupiter’s higher ambiance able to figuring out the prevailing warmth sources,” stated Dr. O’Donoghue. “Thanks to those maps, we confirmed that Jupiter’s aurora borealis was a possible mechanism that might clarify these temperatures.”

Identical to Earth, Jupiter experiences auroras round its poles as an impact of the photo voltaic wind. Nevertheless, whereas the auroras on Earth are transient and solely happen when photo voltaic exercise is intense, the auroras on Jupiter are everlasting and with variable depth. Sturdy auroras can warmth the area across the poles to greater than 700 levels Celsius, and international winds can redistribute warmth globally round Jupiter.

Trying extra deeply by way of their information, Dr. O’Donoghue and his crew detected the wonderful “warmth wave” just under the Northern Lights, and located that it was shifting towards the equator at hundreds of kilometers per hour.

The warmth wave was possible attributable to a pulse of enhanced photo voltaic wind plasma affecting Jupiter’s magnetic discipline, which enhanced auroral heating and compelled scorching gases to develop and spill towards the equator.

“Whereas the aurora borealis consistently transmits warmth to the remainder of the planet, these warmth wave occasions signify an necessary extra supply of vitality,” added Dr. O’Donoghue. “These findings add to our information of climate and local weather in Jupiter’s higher ambiance, and are an enormous assist in making an attempt to unravel the ‘vitality disaster’ that has plagued analysis on large planets.”


The temperature of Jupiter’s ambiance is rising beneath the affect of the photo voltaic wind


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